Various models have been developed to measure EI. The trait model, developed by Konstantinos V. Petrides in 2001, focuses on self reporting of behavioral dispositions and perceived abilities. The ability model, developed by Peter Salovey and John Mayer in 2004, focuses on the individual's ability to process emotional information and use it to navigate the social environment. Goleman's original model may now be considered a mixed model that combines what has since been modeled separately as ability EI and trait EI. More recent research has focused on emotion recognition, which refers to the attribution of emotional states based on observations of visual and auditory nonverbal cues. In addition, neurological studies have sought to characterize the neural mechanisms of emotional intelligence.
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Bullying is abusive social interaction between peers which can include aggression, harassment, and violence. Bullying is typically repetitive and enacted by those who are in a position of power over the victim. A growing body of research illustrates a significant relationship between bullying and emotional intelligence. They also have shown that emotional intelligence is a key factor in the analysis of cases of cybervictimization, by demonstrating a relevant impact on health and social adaptation.
The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development has recognized that because there are divisions about the topic of emotional intelligence, the mental health community needs to agree on some guidelines to describe good mental health and positive mental living conditions. In their section, \"Positive Psychology and the Concept of Health\", they explain. \"Currently there are six competing models of positive health, which are based on concepts such as being above normal, character strengths and core virtues, developmental maturity, social-emotional intelligence, subjective well-being, and resilience. But these concepts define health in philosophical rather than empirical terms. Dr. [Lawrence] Becker suggested the need for a consensus on the concept of positive psychological health...\".
In a meta-analysis of 213 schools where social and emotional learning (SEL) programs were implemented, SEL kids showed significantly increased emotional intelligence skills, behaviors, and attitudes, and significant academic gains (Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011).
According to Bar-On emotional-social intelligence is composed of emotional and social abilities, skills and facilitators. All these elements are interrelated and work together. They play a key role in how effectively we understand ourselves and others, how easily we express ourselves, but also in how we deal with daily demands .
Dr. Goleman and other social scientists have promoted the concept of an emotional intelligence quotient (EQ) test to serve as a counterpart to more traditional intelligence quotient (IQ) tests. While a traditional IQ test seeks to evaluate an individual's ability to learn new information, an emotional intelligence test seeks to evaluate an individual's capacity to deal successfully with others. To that end, EQ test questions focus on assessing soft skills, such as self-awareness, social awareness, relationship management and empathy. 076b4e4f54